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  1. From the BBMF... https://fb.watch/doQqnj57yZ/
  2. Bombardier Global 7500 breaks sound barrier in testing.
  3. https://www.autotrader.ca/editorial/20170302/how-much-does-it-really-cost-to-charge-that-electric-vehicle/ How Much Does It Really Cost to Charge That Electric Vehicle? CAR BUYING TIPS March 01, 2022 By Evan Williams Update (February 28, 2022): With more EVs on the road in 2022 than in 2017, along with big changes in the cost of energy, we’ve updated this guide for 2022 with new vehicles and updated power and fuel rates. Just about every article or news piece about an electric car that we do – and there is a lot of EV news lately – gets a comment thread filled with people debating the price of charging an EV. “Hydro rates are so high,” “maybe when electricity is cheaper,” “who can afford to drive one when I can use cheaper gas,” and best of all “filling a tank with fuel is half the price of plugging in a car.” What we realized is buyers don’t seem to know just how much it costs to charge an EV. I realized I didn’t know how much it would cost to charge an EV either. But I wanted to find out. We all know exactly how much it costs to put gas in the tank – look at the lines if there is a one-cent price jump expected overnight – but electricity is more stable and more predictable. So how much does it cost to “fill up” an electric car? The Price of Power The first step is finding the cost of electricity. In most provinces, it’s easy. Most provinces have a set rate and tax. In New Brunswick, for example, power costs $0.1076/kWh and then gets a 15 percent tax. In provinces with a flat service fee, we have ignored that cost. Since you have to pay that anyway, EV or not, we didn’t count it. One province, however, is a little more tricky. Ontario has not just three time-of-day rates (and a new but little-used tiered system), but a patchwork of electric providers. Each has a different fee to get the power to your door, with some having multiple rates depending on where you live. That makes it difficult to calculate for every person in the province, but we can get an idea of the range for the province using a best case and a worst case. For the worst case, we used rural delivery fees and peak time rates. For the best case, we used nighttime rates with an urban delivery fee rate. In provinces that use a different rate for your first bundle of kWh, we’ve used that lower rate. Our reasoning is that it’s impossible to say which kilowatts went where and that the differences aren’t significant to our calculations. EV Charge Cost The next step is finding out how much electricity a car takes to charge up. Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), the same agency that handles fuel economy ratings, does consumption ratings for electric cars. Part of their estimates is a kWh/100 km rating for all electric cars. We’ll use their city/highway combined rating as the amount of electricity used to drive 100 km. For our calculations, we’re using two electric vehicles. The 2022 Hyundai Kona Electric and the 2022 Ford Mustang Mach-E Long Range AWD. An average BEV compact, and a more premium longer-range electric SUV. For gasoline equivalents, we have chosen the 2022 Honda Civic sedan to put next to the Kona EV. It’s the best-selling car in Canada, offering a similar cabin and footprint. To pair up with the Mach-E, we picked one of the most popular midsize crossovers in Canada. The Hyundai Santa Fe (2.5T) is a popular SUV that offers good fuel economy as well as similar overall length, width, and height. Fuelling up our Calculators The Honda Civic is rated to get 6.9 L/100 km in combined driving (with either of its available engines). The average price of regular gasoline in Canada at the time of writing is $1.585/L. Multiplying the two numbers together gives the cost of driving 100 km – roughly $10.94 – assuming the Civic achieves its official mileage figure (rare for any gas car, but let’s assume so throughout for comparison purposes). British Columbians and Newfoundlanders, your gas is significantly more expensive than the rest of the country, so your costs would be $12.28 and $11.94 per 100 km, respectively (Alberta is the cheapest at $10.01). A Hyundai Kona EV uses 17.4 kWh to drive 100 km. This is where the math gets trickier. In Quebec, that’s 6.159 ¢/kWh plus eight per cent tax and it will run the meter to a total of $1.23 – almost a 90 per cent savings versus the cost of gas, in theory. But Quebec does have the cheapest rates in the country so let’s look at the worst case in rural Ontario. The highest main grid electric cost in the country is in rural areas of Ontario at peak time. Power then and there costs 20.67 ¢/kWh plus tax. Again, that’s on top of the large fixed charges, but since you aren’t unplugging your fridge anytime soon we won’t count those. So in rural Ontario, the most expensive part of the country for electricity, 100 km in a Kona EV will cost $4.06. That’s about a third of the cost to fill a gas car. But wait, charge that car at night or any time on off-peak weekends, as most EV owners do, and the Ontario worst-case cost drops to just $2.33. If you aren’t in a rural area, the cost is just $2.03. MORE RELATED ARTICLES Feds Announce Zero-Emissions Vehicle Mandate for 2035 Demystifying Electric Vehicles: Explaining the Units of Measure You Should Know How to Get the Most Out of Your Electric Vehicle in the Winter Demystifying Electric Vehicles: How to Choose the Right EV Our EV Charging Infrastructure Is Woefully Inadequate So in the best case, the Kona EV costs less than 11 per cent as much to fill as a Civic, worst case is around 38 per cent. Averaging costs across the nation, charging an electric vehicle is about 78 per cent less expensive than fuelling up a similar gasoline vehicle. What About Bigger Vehicles? What about the SUVs? A Hyundai Santa Fe with the 2.5L turbo-four engine makes 277 hp and uses an estimated 9.9 L/100 km. That works out to $15.69 to drive 100 km on average ($17.62 in BC, $17.13 in NL, and $14.36 in AB). The Ford Mustang Mach-E uses 23.1 kWh/100 km, which works out to $1.64 in Quebec, $5.40 in worst case Ontario, and a national average of $3.24. Here the situation is much the same, with the cost of charging the Mach-E 79 per cent less expensive than fuelling the Santa Fe on average. So now we know how much electric cars should cost to charge. Most EV’s come within a few cents of the cost of the two we’ve used as well because they’re all shockingly (zing!) efficient and group similarly based on their physical size and weight. They have some other tricks up their cords as well. What About Paid Chargers? For a start, there are thousands of chargers spread around the country. It takes some effort to find somewhere rural enough that there isn’t one nearby. Many of those chargers are Level 2 plugs that cost nothing to use. So with some planning, patience and luck, you could reduce the yearly fuelling bill to zero. Zip, zilch, nada. Many others charge by the hour, often $1 or $2 per hour. $2 per hour and an approximate rate of 30 km per hour puts the cost at around $5 for 100 km of driving. Charging at pay-to-use Level 3 charging varies wildly. You’re charged based on time, but how much charge your vehicle can accept in that time changes based on the temperature, your current charge level, and several other factors. Because of this variability, and because several studies have shown 80 percent or more charging is done at home, we’re not going in depth on L3 charging. But, a 50-kW fast charger will add around 100 km of range in about 20 minutes, at a cost of approximately $4.50. A 350-kW charger, the fastest currently offered, can add 100 km in as little as four minutes, at a price of less than $3. Hybrids and PHEVs Compared How do plug-in hybrids compare? For these calculations, we’ve used a model that is offered in gas, hybrid, and PHEV drivelines: the Toyota RAV4. It’s also Canada’s best-selling crossover, making it an even better example. The gas-powered AWD RAV4 can travel 100 km on 8.4 L of regular gas, according to NRCan. The hybrid and PHEV RAV4 Prime both use 6.0 L of regular gas to travel 100 km. But the Prime has an advantage: it can travel for the first 68 km of that trip on electric power instead, using gasoline for only the final 32 km. Measured that way, it uses 15.2 kWh of electricity and just 1.9 L of fuel. With those figures, and the Canadian gas price average, a gas RAV4 will cost $13.31 in fuel to drive 100 km. The RAV4 Hybrid should cost $9.51, and the RAV4 Prime PHEV just $5.17. So a 100-km trip in that plug-in hybrid would still cost more than a fully electric car, but a look at our chart shows the overall fuelling costs are definitely less than their conventional gas versions. Since most drivers only occasionally travel more than 40 km per day, the potential cost savings is even greater. What’s the Payback? That’s how much it costs to charge that electric car. It’s not a surprise that the EV will cost less to drive 100 km than a gas car, but it is a surprise how quickly it adds up. The savings in a single year comparing our two compacts (and the average Canadian’s 20,000 km per year distance travelled) is a worst case of $1,374 per year and a best case of $1,941. For our SUVs, the potential savings is as much as $2,811. Add that to current federal EV incentives of up to $5,000, combined with provincial incentives as high as $8,000, and an EV can pay for itself in just a few years. Our compact car examples could reach parity in just three and a half years for buyers living in Quebec. The best part of an EV? You’ll never have to stand beside a pump at -30°C ever again. You can even program the car to warm up while it’s still on the charger. That’s something to think about the next time you’re shopping for a new car. Home EV Charging Cost for 100 km Range, Alphabetically by Province Derived from NRCan data retrieved on 2022-02-25 1 2022 Hyundai Kona Electric: 17.4 kWh/100 km combined 2 2022 Ford Mustang Mach-E: 23.1 kWh/100 km combined 3 2022 Toyota RAV4 Prime (PHEV): 22.3 kWh/100 km combined, 68 km range; 6.0 L/100 km combined. Calculation assumes 68 km of pure electric operation per 100 km travelled. 4 2022 Honda Civic Sedan: 6.9 L/100 km combined 5 2022 Hyundai Santa Fe: 9.9 L/100 km combined 6 2022 Toyota RAV4 Hybrid: 6.0 L/100 km combined Kona Electric1 Mustang Mach-E2 RAV4 Prime3 AB $3.03 $4.03 $5.43 BC $1.72 $2.28 $4.91 MB $1.82 $2.41 $4.43 NB $2.28 $3.02 $4.98 NL $2.51 $3.33 $5.50 NS $2.96 $3.93 $5.58 ON (average) $3.05 $4.05 $5.67 Toronto off-peak $2.03 $2.70 $4.78 Toronto on-peak $3.76 $4.99 $6.29 Rural off-peak $2.33 $3.10 $5.05 Rural on-peak $4.06 $5.40 $6.56 PEI $2.99 $3.96 $5.64 QC $1.23 $1.64 $4.28 SK $2.85 $3.78 $5.30 National average $2.44 $3.24 $5.17 Gas comparison $10.944 $15.695 $9.516 Annual Home EV Charging Cost, from Lowest to Highest Cost Derived from NRCan data retrieved on 2022-02-25 1 2022 Hyundai Kona Electric: 17.4 kWh/100 km combined 2 2022 Ford Mustang Mach-E: 23.1 kWh/100 km combined 3 2022 Toyota RAV4 Prime (PHEV): 22.3 kWh/100 km combined, 68 km range; 6.0 L/100 km combined. Calculation assumes 68 km of pure electric operation per 100 km travelled. 4 2022 Honda Civic Sedan: 6.9 L/100 km combined 5 2022 Hyundai Santa Fe: 9.9 L/100 km combined 6 2022 Toyota RAV4 Hybrid: 6.0 L/100 km combined Kona Electric1 Mustang Mach-E2 RAV4 Prime3 QC $246 $327 $856 BC $343 $456 $983 MB $363 $482 $885 NB $455 $605 $996 NL $501 $665 $1,101 SK $569 $756 $1,060 NS $592 $787 $1,115 PEI $597 $793 $1,127 AB $607 $805 $1,085 ON (average) $609 $809 $1,134 Toronto off-peak $406 $539 $957 Rural off-peak $467 $620 $1,010 Toronto on-peak $752 $998 $1,258 Rural on-peak $813 $1,079 $1,311 National average $488 $648 $1,034 Gas Comparison $2,1874 $3,1385 $1,9026
  4. https://www.atsb.gov.au/media/news-items/2022/covered-static-ports/ 787’s covered fan cowl static ports highlights importance of clear and unambiguous procedures Key points: Boeing 787 being used for freight operations flew from Melbourne to Los Angeles with tape covering its engine cowl fan static ports; While the flight was uneventful, the covered ports meant redundancy for the engine electronic control system was reduced; Job instruction card for restoring a 787 to service did not link to Boeing’s recommended procedures; Qantas has amended its engineering instructions to properly reference Boeing’s recommended procedures. A Boeing 787 being used for a freight flight flew from Melbourne to Los Angeles with tape over four of its static ports, a new ATSB investigation report details. After the Qantas 787-9 aircraft, registered VH-ZNJ, landed in Los Angeles on the morning of 22 September 2021, a Qantas engineer found tape covering the four static ports on the aircraft’s engine fan cowls. Static ports provide important air pressure data to aircraft systems. Boeing recommends they be covered, to avoid contamination, when the aircraft is parked for periods up to 7 days, and Qantas incorporated this instruction into its ‘normal’ parking procedure. The ATSB investigation details that on the day before the incident flight, an engineer undertook the parking procedure on the aircraft, which included covering the engine cowl static ports with ‘remove before flight’ barricade streamer tape. “Later that day, another engineer was tasked to conduct the ‘restore’ procedure to return the aircraft to flight status,” ATSB Director Transport Safety Stuart Macleod explained. “The tape on the engine fan cowls was not removed by that engineer, as per the manufacturer’s procedures, and this wasn’t identified by flight crew or dispatch during pre-departure checks.” VH-ZNJ subsequently took off with the tape still on its engine fan cowl static ports. “While the flight was uneventful, the covered ports meant redundancy for the engine electronic control system was reduced,” Mr Macleod noted. The ATSB found that while the job instruction card (JIC) developed by Qantas for parking a 787 did link to Boeing’s recommended procedures, the JIC for restoring it back to service did not. “This was a missed opportunity to assist engineers to readily access the current procedures and determine which ports were covered, and also allowed for different interpretations of which ports could be covered,” Mr Macleod said. “When performing safety‑critical tasks like aircraft maintenance, it is very important that procedures are clear and unambiguous to avoid misinterpretation and error such as occurred in this incident.” At interview, the flight crew’s second officer, who conducted an exterior inspection of VH-ZNJ before the flight, reported they were aware of the fan cowl ports, but not that they could be covered by tape. The second officer also reported they were somewhat distracted during the inspection, as they had found a pitot tube cover on the ground, and were trying to hand it off to an engineering staff member at that time. “The second officer also believed Qantas engineering had conducted a pre-flight inspection prior to the flight crew arriving at the aircraft,” Mr Macleod added. Following the occurrence, Qantas distributed memos to engineering, and flight and ramp crew, highlighting the location of the fan cowl static ports and that they may be covered. In addition, the airline amended its ‘park’ and ‘restore’ engineering instructions to both reference Boeing’s procedures. The investigation report also notes the metre-long tail of the ‘remove before flight’ tape covering the static ports was stuck down, to prevent it being torn from the fuselage in strong winds, as per Boeing’s recommended procedure. “This likely reduced the visibility of it covering the fan cowl static port covers,” Mr Macleod said. “Targeted inspection of locations and components, rather than relying on streamers, which can detach, can help to identify when these covers or devices have not been removed.” Read the report: AO-2021-040 Aircraft flight preparation occurrence involving Boeing 787-9, VH‑ZNJ Melbourne Airport, Victoria on 22 September 2021
  5. Taxes aren't the problem. It's greed... https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2022-05-09/crude-hovers-at-110-a-barrel-but-the-refinery-margin-makes-us-pay-a-lot-more?sref=5dj0X2VO Sorry, But for You, Oil Trades at $250 a Barrel The culprit is the refinery margin and the consequences are huge for global inflation. By Javier Blas May 9, 2022, 1:48 AM EDT Listen to this article 6:22 Share this article Follow the authors Javier Blas is a Bloomberg Opinion columnist covering energy and commodities. A former reporter for Bloomberg News and commodities editor at the Financial Times, he is coauthor of “The World for Sale: Money, Power and the Traders Who Barter the Earth’s Resources.” @JavierBlas + Get alerts forJavier Blas In this article CL1 WTI Crude 113.23 USD/bbl. +1.02+0.91% XB1 Generic 1st 'XB' Future 383.73 USd/gal. +0.56+0.15% SHEL SHELL PLC 2,336.50 GBp +8.00+0.34% MS MORGAN STANLEY 78.82 USD -1.14-1.43% Open If you are the owner of an oil refinery, then crude is trading happily just a little above $110 a barrel — expensive, but not extortionate. If you aren’t an oil baron, I have bad news: it's as if oil is trading somewhere between $150 and $275 a barrel. The oil market is projecting a false sense of stability when it comes to energy inflation. Instead, the real economy is suffering a much stronger price shock than it appears, because fuel prices are rising much faster than crude, and that matters for monetary policy. Petroleum Shock Refined oil products have risen between 30% and nearly 140% since Russia invaded Ukraine in late February, compared to less than 15% for crude. Source: Bloomberg To understand why, let’s examine the guts of the oil market: the refining industry. Wall Street closely monitors the price of crude, particularly a grade called West Texas Intermediate traded in New York. It’s a benchmark followed by everyone, from bond investors to central bankers. But only oil refiners buy crude — and therefore, are exposed to its price. The rest of us — the real economy — purchase refined petroleum products like gasoline, diesel and jet-fuel that we can use to run cars, trucks and airplanes. It’s those post-refinery prices that matter to us. Typically, the price of crude and the price of refined products go up and down in tandem, almost symmetrically. What’s in between is a refining margin. In normal times, WTI is a handy price shorthand for the entirety of the petroleum market. So when, say, U.S. Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell looks at WTI, he gets a neat picture of the whole energy market. More from BloombergOpinion The SPAC Bust Is Expensive Stagflation Is Sexy. It May Also Be Unlikely. Art Is an Investment to Appreciate Don’t Let Erdogan Slow NATO Enlargement But we aren’t in normal times. Right now, the traditional relationship between crude and refined products is broken. WTI is anchored around $100-$110 a barrel, suggesting that — in barrel terms — gasoline, diesel and jet-fuel prices shouldn’t be much higher, once you add the average refining margin. In reality, they are a lot more expensive. Take jet-fuel: in New York harbor, a key hub, it’s changing hands at the equivalent to $275 per barrel. Diesel isn’t far away, at about $175 a barrel. And gasoline is at about $155 a barrel. Those are wholesale prices, before you add taxes and marketing margins. What’s changed? Refining margins have exploded. And that means energy inflation is far stronger than it appears. Oil refineries are complex machines, capable of processing multiple streams of crude into dozens of different petroleum products. For simplicity’s sake, the industry measures refining margins using a rough calculation called the “3-2-1 crack spread”: for every three barrels of WTI crude oil the refinery processes, it makes two barrels of gasoline and one barrel of distillate fuel like diesel and jet-fuel. Cracking Profits Oil refiners are enjoying the best ever processing margins, lifting the cost of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and jet-fuel well above that of crude Source: Bloomberg Note: WTI 3-2-1 cracking margin From 1985 to 2021, the crack spread averaged about $10.50 a barrel. Even between 2004 and 2008, during the so-called golden age of refining, the crack spread never surpassed $30. It rarely spent more than a few weeks above $20. Last week, however, the margin jumped to a record high of nearly $55. Crack margins for diesel and other petroleum products surged much higher. There are four main reasons behind the explosion in refining margins. First, demand — particularly for diesel — has rebounded strongly, depleting global inventories. In some markets, like the U.S. East Coast, diesel stocks have fallen to a 30-year low. Despite rising prices and fears of an economic slowdown later this year, oil executive say they see strong consumption for now. “Demand is not that easily destroyed,” Shell Plc Chief Executive Officer Ben van Beurden told investors last week. Second, the U.S. and its allies have tapped their strategic petroleum reserves to cap the rally in oil prices. That has provided extra crude, which has put a lid on WTI prices, but it hasn’t addressed the tightness in refined products. Only a small fraction of the emergency release is in the form of refined products, and only in Europe. Third, and perhaps most importantly, refining capacity has declined where it matters for the market now, and the plants that are operating are struggling to process enough crude to satisfy the demand for fuel. Martijn Rats, an oil analyst at Morgan Stanley, estimates that outside China and the Middle East, oil distillation capacity fell by 1.9 million barrels a day from the end of 2019 to today — that’s the largest decline in 30 years. Opinion. Data. More Data. Get the most important Bloomberg Opinion pieces in one email. Email Sign Up Bloomberg may send me offers and promotions. By submitting my information, I agree to the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. The downward trend started well before the pandemic hit, as old Western refineries struggled to compete, environmental regulations increased costs and the unfounded fear of peak oil demand amid the energy transition prompted some companies to close plants. The fuel-demand collapse triggered by Covid-19 only turbo-charged the trend, resulting in dozens of refinery operations shutting down for good in Europe and the U.S. in 2020 and 2021. New capacity has emerged in China. However, Beijing tightly controls how much fuel its refiners can export so that capacity is effectively out of reach of the global market. “Has the oil market hit the refinery wall?,” Rats asked in a note to clients last week. “Unusually, the answer appears to be yes.” Fourth, are the sanctions and unilateral embargos — also known as self-sanctions — on Russian oil. Before the invasion of Ukraine, Russia was a major exporter not just of crude, but also of diesel and semi-processed oil that Western refiners turned into fuel. Europe, in particular, relied on Russian refineries for a significant chunk of its diesel imports. The flow has now dried. Europe not only needs to find extra crude to produce the diesel and other fuels it’s not buying from Russia, but, crucially, it needs the refining capacity to do so, too. It’s a double blow. Oil traders estimate that Russia has shut down 1.3 million to 1.5 million barrels a day of refining capacity as result of the self-sanctions. Who’s benefiting? The pure-play oil refiners, which are quietly enjoying record-high profit margins. While OPEC and Big Oil get the blame, independent refiners are cashing-in. The sky-high crack margins explains why the share prices of U.S. refining giants Marathon Petroleum Corp. and Valero Energy Corp. have surged to all-time highs. The longer the refiners make super-profits, the harder the energy shock will hit the economy. The only solution is to lower demand. For that, however, a recession will be necessary.
  6. Waddell's Wagon, created to train pilots to taxi in the 747 before prototypes were completed.
  7. Another cool trick with the Iphone is that if you see an aircraft flying over, say 'Hey Siri, planes overhead' and it will give you the information on what flights you are seeing and a sky map of where they are.
  8. Now that's a crop duster!
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